Health officials for Guinea don confam di first case of Marburg virus for West Africa. Marburg, na highly-infectious disease wey dey di same family as di virus wey dey cause Ebola.
Di World Health Organization (WHO) say dem must stop di virus “in its tracks”.
Marburg virus disease dey enta pipo body from fruit bats and e dey spread among human beings through di transmission of bodily fluids.
E dey cause serious and most times fatal illness wey dey cause fever and bleeding disorders.
Samples wey dem collect from di patient for Guinea, wey don die since, test positive for di Marburg virus afta dem carry am go di kontri laboratories.
Dr Matshidiso Moeti, from WHO say di virus get di potential to spread far and wide.
Efforts dey underway now to find people wey fit don come in contact wit di man.
Di systems wey dey in place for Guinea and neighbouring kontris to control recent Ebola outbreaks na wetin dem dey take respond to di Marburg virus.
Marburg virus disease na highly infectious disease wey dey cause haemorrhagic fever, wit fatality ratio of up to 88%.
E dey di same family wit di virus wey dey cause Ebola virus disease.
Two large outbreaks wey happun di same time for Marburg and Frankfurt for Germany, and for Belgrade, Serbia, for 1967, lead to di initial recognition of di disease. Di outbreak dey associated wit laboratory work wey use African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) wey dem import from Uganda.
Oda outbreaks and sporadic cases don dey reported for Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda.
How Marburg virus take dey spread:
Marburg dey spread from pesin to pesin through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) wit di blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected pipo and wit surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) wey dey contaminated wit di fluids.
Transmission dey occur through contaminated injection equipment or through needle-stick injuries.
Burial ceremonies wey involve direct contact wit di body of di deceased dey also contribute to di spread of Marburg.
Pipo go remain infectious as long as their blood contain di virus.
Symptoms of Marburg virus disease:
Di incubation period dey vary from 2 to 21 days.
Sickness wey Marburg virus cause dey start suddenly wit high fever, severe headache and severe malaise.
Muscle aches and pains na common feature. Severe watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting fit start on di third day. Di diarrhoea fit last for one week. At dis phase, di patient go be like ghost, di face no go show any expression.
Many patients dey develop severe haemorrhagic manifestations between 5 and 7 days, and fatal cases dey usually get some kain bleeding, often from multiple areas. Fresh blood for vomit and faeces join wit bleeding from di nose, gums, and vagina.
In very serious cases, death dey occur most often between 8 and 9 days afta symptom comot, e go start wit severe blood loss and shock.
E dey difficult to clinically distinguish MVD from other infectious diseases like malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, meningitis and oda viral haemorrhagic fevers.
Na dis method dem take dey diagnosed Marburg virus infection:
- antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
- antigen-capture detection tests
- serum neutralization test
- reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
- electron microscopy
- virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples wey dem collect from patients na extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples dey conducted under maximum biological containment conditions. All biological specimens suppose dey packaged using di triple packaging system wen dem transport dem nationally and internationally.
Currently no vaccines or antiviral treatments dey approved for MVD.
However, supportive care – rehydration wit oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms dey improve survival.